Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Legacy Department

Educational Leadership

Committee Member

Dr. James Satterfield, Committee Chair

Committee Member

Dr. Tony Cawthon

Committee Member

Dr. Walter Tobin

Committee Member

Dr. Cheryl Warner


The purpose of this study was to add to the literature on community colleges and organizational change. This study explored how interested parties, internal and external, understood the organizational change called the Reinvention Initiative occurring at the City Colleges of Chicago and how this organizational change influenced constituencies' definition of efficiency and effectiveness for the organization. In order to accurately answer the research questions, a qualitative research method called phenomenography was employed. The study used overt and covert data collection to obtain data from stakeholders of the City Colleges of Chicago. The researcher did semi-structured interviews and as well as document analysis. Ten individuals agreed to participate in this research study. In addition to the interviews, ten documents were submitted by participants. Participants included City College of Chicago administrators and staff, City Colleges of Chicago faculty and leaders of community organizations in the City of Chicago. Each of these group's professions differ and therefore their experience with the Reinvention Initiative were varied. The data collected indicated that internal and external constituents champion Reinvention Initiative's stated goal to support student success, however, there were concerns surrounding how the changes were implemented at the City Colleges of Chicago. The findings of this study support the literature that states that effectiveness is determined by those outside of the organization while efficiency is defined internally (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978).



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