Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Legacy Department



Professor Anthony Guiseppi-Elie

Committee Member

Professor Frank Alexis

Committee Member

Professor Steve Creager

Committee Member

Professor Delphine Dean

Committee Member

Professor Yaw Obeng


The fabrication of multi-analyte biotransducers continues to be a major technical challenge when the length scales of the individual transducer elements are on the order of microns Generation-3 (Gen-3) biosensors and advanced enzyme biofuel cells will benefit from direct electron transfer to oxidoreductases facilitated by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Direct electron transfer helps to mitigate errors from the instability in oxygen tension, eliminate use of a mediator and produce a device with low operating potential close to the redox potential of the enzymes. Supramolecular conjugates of SWNT-glucose oxidase (GOx-SWNT) may be produced via ultrasonic processing. Using a Plackett-Burman experimental design to investigate the process of tip ultrasonication, conjugate formation was investigated as a function of ultrasonication times and functionalized SWNTs of various tube lengths. Supramolecular conjugates formed from shorter, -OH functionalized SWNTs using longer sonication times gave the most favored combination for forming bioactive conjugates.