Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Legacy Department

Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management

Committee Chair/Advisor

Norman, William

Committee Member

Backman , Sheila

Committee Member

Ramshaw , Gregory

Committee Member

Bridges , William


Anticipation is the first travel phase (Clawson & Knetsch, 1966) and consists of the vacation planning process. Tourists may exhibit varying levels of mindfulness during this phase. Mindfulness is associated with analytic decision making through a heightened sensitivity to one's environment and openness to new information (Langer & Moldoveanu, 2000). This study considered the influence that mindfulness during the travel anticipation phase has on: search and choice behaviors, search and choice outcomes, and trip evaluations. Analysis was also conducted to determine if there was a significant influence on the relationships based on the mediating effect of the amount of the trip was planned in advance. Moderation was tested to determine if interactions existed based on whether the tourist selected a destination that was novel, and whether the tourist considered that area to be the primary destination for their trip. The results of the analysis found that mindfulness during the travel anticipation phase had significant positive influences on the source variety, the level of enjoyment, the level of confidence, satisfaction, behavioral loyalty, and attitudinal loyalty. Mediation effects found that the amount of the trip that was planned in advance had a significant influence on the relationship between mindfulness and the planning horizon, enjoyment, and satisfaction. Moderating effects were found between mindfulness and attitudinal loyalty for people visiting a novel destination, and between mindfulness and planning horizon for people who were in their primary destination. The study confirmed that mindfulness during the anticipation phase influenced the travel experience.



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