Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Legacy Department

Electrical Engineering


Makram, Elham B.


In economic dispatch (ED) of electric power generation, the committed generating units are scheduled to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost with satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Generation of electricity from the fossil fuel releases several contaminants into the atmosphere. So the economic dispatch objective can no longer be considered alone due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced by fossil fueled electric power plants. This research is proposing the concept of environmental/economic generation scheduling with traditional and renewable energy sources. Environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective problem with conflicting objectives since emission minimization is conflicting with fuel cost minimization. Production and consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy are closely related to environmental degradation. This causes negative effects to human health and the quality of life. Depletion of the fossil fuel resources will also be challenging for the presently employed energy systems to cope with future energy requirements. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as hydro and wind are abundant, inexhaustible and widely available. These sources use native resources and have the capacity to meet the present and the future energy demands of the world with almost nil emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The costs of fossil fuel and renewable energy are also heading in opposite directions. The economic policies needed to support the widespread and sustainable markets for renewable energy sources are rapidly evolving. The contribution of this research centers on solving the economic dispatch problem of a system with hybrid energy resources under environmental restrictions. It suggests an effective solution of renewable energy to the existing fossil fueled and nuclear electric utilities for the cheaper and cleaner production of electricity with hourly emission targets. Since minimizing the emissions and fuel cost are conflicting objectives, a practical approach based on multi-objective optimization is applied to obtain compromised solutions in a single simulation run using genetic algorithm. These solutions are known as non-inferior or Pareto-optimal solutions, graphically illustrated by the trade-off curves between criterions fuel cost and pollutant emission. The efficacy of the proposed approach is illustrated with the help of different sample test cases. This research would be useful for society, electric utilities, consultants, regulatory bodies, policy makers and planners.