Date of Award

8-2013

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Legacy Department

Civil Engineering

Advisor

Chowdhury, Mashrur

Committee Member

Klotz , Leidy

Committee Member

Huang , Yongxi

Committee Member

Martin , Jim

Committee Member

Zhou , Yan

Abstract

The rapid development of increasingly complex in-vehicle electronics now offers an unprecedented level of convenience and versatility as well as accelerates the demand for connected driving experience, which can only be achieved in a comprehensive Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology based architecture. While a number of charging and range related issues continue to impede the Electric Vehicle (EV) market growth, integrating ITS technologies with EVs has the potential to address the problems and facilitate EV operations. This dissertation presents an ITS based vehicle infrastructure communication architecture in which abundant information can be exchanged in real time through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to- infrastructure communication, so that a variety of in-vehicle applications can be built to enhance the performance of EVs.
This dissertation emphasizes on developing two applications that are specifically designed for EVs. First, an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) based routing and recharging strategy dedicated to accommodate EV trips was devised. The algorithm developed in this study seeks, in real time, the lowest cost route possible without violating the energy constraint and can quickly provide an alternate suboptimal route in the event of unexpected situations (such as traffic congestion, traffic incident and road closure). If the EV battery requires a recharge, the algorithm can be utilized to develop a charging schedule based on recharging locations, recharging cost and wait time, and to simultaneously maintain the minimum total travel time and energy consumption objectives. The author also elucidates a charge scheduling model that maximizes the net profit for each vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled EV owner who participates in the grid ancillary services while the energy demands for their trips can be guaranteed as well. By applying ITS technologies, the charge scheduling model can rapidly adapt to changes of variables or coefficients within the model for the purpose of developing the latest optimal charge/discharge schedule.
The performance of EVs involved in the architecture was validated by a series of simulations. A roadway network in Charleston, SC was created in the simulator and a comparison between ordinary EVs and connected EVs was performed with a series of simulation experiments. Analysis revealed that the vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to- infrastructure communication technology resulted in not only a reduction of the total travel time and energy consumption, but also in the reduction of the amount of the recharged electricity and corresponding cost, thus significantly relieving the concerns of range anxiety. The routing and recharging strategy also potentially allows for a reduction in the EV battery capacity, in turn reducing the cost of the energy storage system to a reasonable level. The efficiency of the charge scheduling model was validated by estimating optimal annual financial benefits and leveling the additional load from EV charging to maintain a reliable and robust power grid system. The analysis showed that the scheduling model can indeed optimize the profit which substantially offsets the annual energy cost for EV owners and that EV participants can even make a positive net profit with a higher power of the electrical circuit. In addition, the extra load distribution from the optimized EV charging operations was more balanced than that from the unmanaged EV operations. Grid operators can monitor and ease the load in real time by adjusting the prices should the load exceed the capacity.
The ITS supported architecture presented in this dissertation can be used in the evolution of a new generation of EVs with new features and benefits for prospective owners. This study suggests a great promise for the integration of EVs with ITS technologies for purpose of promoting sustainable transportation system development.

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