Supplementary material from "Integrating blood cell mechanics, platelet adhesive dynamics and coagulation cascade for modelling thrombus formation in normal and diabetic blood"


Normal haemostasis is an important physiological mechanism that prevents excessive bleeding during trauma, whereas the pathological thrombosis especially in diabetics leads to increased incidence of heart attacks and strokes as well as peripheral vascular events. In this work, we propose a new multiscale framework that integrates seamlessly four key components of blood clotting, namely transport of coagulation factors, coagulation kinetics, blood cell mechanics and platelet adhesive dynamics, to model the development of thrombi under physiological and pathological conditions. We implement this framework to simulate platelet adhesion due to the exposure of tissue factor in a three-dimensional microchannel. Our results show that our model can simulate thrombin-mediated platelet activation in the flowing blood, resulting in platelet adhesion to the injury site of the channel wall. Furthermore, we simulate platelet adhesion in diabetic blood, and our results show that both the pathological alterations in the biomechanics of blood cells and changes in the amount of coagulation factors contribute to the excessive platelet adhesion and aggregation in diabetic blood. Taken together, this new framework can be used to probe synergistic mechanisms of thrombus formation under physiological and pathological conditions, and open new directions in modelling complex biological problems that involve several multiscale processes.

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