Short-term and Long-term Time Course Studies of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Microrhizome Development In Vitro
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) plantlets were cultured in MS (Murashige and Skoog Physiol Plant 15:473–497, 1962) liquid medium with 6% sucrose. Microrhizome development was observed in the presence of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) (0, 5 and 16 μM) and benzyladenine (BA) (0, 0.32 and 1 μM). Leaf, root, rhizome growth, and sugar use were measured weekly for 6 weeks in small vessels (180 ml) and four times in 23 weeks in larger vessels (2.5 l). MeJa reduced leaf, root, and rhizome biomass. BA had a positive effect on biomass accumulation. Microrhizome mass increased at a linear rate during 6 weeks of culture while roots and leaves accumulated biomass at an exponential rate. Sugar use correlated nearly directly to whole plant dry weight (DW) in the short and long-term experiments. Microrhizomes became a larger fraction of whole plant DW as plantlets aged. After 6 weeks, about 1.8 g of microrhizome DW per liter of media had been produced (in both time courses), and after 23 weeks, about 26 g of microrhizome DW per liter of media had been produced. Secondary rhizomes were first observed at 14 weeks, and most plants had them by 23 weeks. A method for rhizome production in a long-term culture system was described. The linear relationship between DW and sugar use will be useful in the eventual development of a model for sugar use to biomass to secondary metabolite production.
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