Planting in deepwater swamp areas is difficult and time consuming, and nursery-grown seedlings are often not suited for such conditions. Baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.], water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.), swamp blackgum [N. sylvatica var. biflora (Walt.) Sarg.], and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) have been planted at various flooded sites in South Carolina and Louisiana. One of the most effective means of planting these species in flooded situations was to heavily prune the lateral roots, grasp the seedling at the root collar, and push it into the soil. Excellent results have been obtained with baldcypress, whereas green ash was most sensitive to root pruning and water depth. Water tupelo and swamp blackgum were intermediate in response. Tree shelters are commonly used to reduce herbivory problems, and height growth inside the shelters is increased. Additional research is needed to compare operational performance of various techniques under conditions of interacting stresses such as herbivory and flooding.
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