We develop a pH sensor based on use of X-ray Excited Luminescence Chemical Imaging (XELCI) to non-invasively detect and image changes in pH of a surface with high spatial and pH resolution while minimizing tissue scattering effects. Diagnosis and treatment of infections associated with implanted medical devices is a challenge, as clinical symptoms of implant associated infection are often delayed and can sometimes be completely absent till infection reaches a later stage. Early diagnosis of implant associated infection and non-invasive continuous monitoring of infection to evaluate eradication and success of treatment has not been established yet. Treatment of implant infection without implant removal is possible if infection can be diagnosed at its onset. Our pH sensor can be attached to the implant surface to non-invasively diagnose and monitor implant associated infection in situ. Bacteria and inflammatory responses cause a pH drop in the area and pH shifts to acidic from in situ pH (~ 7.3). Our pH sensor consists of a layered structure of a pH sensitive polymer film over radioluminescent particles. The pH sensor is characterized for reversibility, sensitivity and resolution. XELCI provides high spatial resolution images mainly limited by X-ray beam width with minimum increase from X-ray scattering in the tissue. It allows point by point mapping of the surface with minimum background. We studied pH changes during the formation of biofilm on the pH sensitive sensor film. In summary, our sensor provides a novel approach to non-invasively image surface pH to diagnose implant infection and assess treatment.
Uzair, Unaiza; Benza, Donald; Wang, Fenglin; Raval, Yash; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong J.; and Anker, Jeffrey N., "A pH sensor for non-invasive in vivo detection and imaging of implant associated infection" (2016). Chemistry Annual Research Symposium. Paper 9.