Ionic and electronic conductivities were recently shown to be able to be independently probed utilizing a near-DC based method for free standing thin films containing mixtures of nafion and carbon black. Recently the mixed conductivity methodology was extended to packed powders in order to study ionic and electronic conductivities of carbon/zirconia nano composite materials for which molecular and polymer electrolytes were covalently grafted onto the carbon/zirconia particle surfaces. The method relies upon careful control of the nature of the contact between the sample and the current-carry-ing electrodes, as well as the geometry of the sample configuration.
Shetzline, Jamie A.; Oh, Jung-Min; and Creager, Stephen E., "Investigation of ionic and electronic conductivities in modified carbon/zirconia composites" (2016). Chemistry Annual Research Symposium. 16.