Date of Award

5-2013

Document Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Legacy Department

Plant and Environmental Science

Advisor

Mueller, John D

Committee Member

Arai , Yuji

Committee Member

Frederick , James R

Committee Member

Marshall , Michael W

Abstract

Planting date plays a significant role in determining soybean growth, development and seed yield. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of late planting date, management system, and maturity group on the growth, development and seed yield of maturity group VII and VIII soybean under dry land conditions in the Southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Plant growth and development, seed yield, yield components, and seed oil and protein concentrations were evaluated throughout the season. These experiments were conducted in South Carolina at the Edisto Research and Education Center near Blackville and the Pee Dee Research and Education Center near Florence. Soybean was planted at four weekly intervals starting on 15-June in both 2011 and 2012. Pioneer 97M50 (a MG VII determinate variety) and Prichard Roundup Ready (a MG VIII determinate variety) were selected based on their adaptation to the Southeast. The two management systems were: a strip-till (ST) system using a John Deere MaxEmerge Vaccum planter + Unverferth 300 strip till with 96-cm row spacing and a drilled no-till (NT) planting system with 19-cm row spacing. Plant growth was evaluated based on leaf area index (LAI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and plant height (HT). Plant development was calculated based on the duration (days) of growth stages. Growth stages were recorded weekly from 10 randomly selected plants in each plot. The beginning of each stage was determined when at least 50% of plants were at that stage. Overall, planting after 22 June appeared to reduce seed yield. The ST system increased the seed yield compared to the drilled NT system. Yields were greater for the MG VIII variety than the MG VII variety. LAI, NDVI, and HT at R2 and R4 were generally reduced with delayed planting dates. Later planting shortened the duration of both vegetative and reproductive growth stages for both MG VII and VIII soybeans. Shortened duration of vegetative growth and seed filling period might have contributed most to the lower yields observed in delayed planting dates. Planting date did not affect either protein or oil concentration. Protein concentration in the seed was found to be significantly higher and oil concentration lower in soybean grown in the ST system than in the drilled NT system. Positive correlations were found between: seed yield and LAI, NDVI, and HT at R2 and R4; seed yield and duration of vegetative and seed filling growth period; and seed yield and dry weight of each plant part (branches, stems, petioles, leaves, and pods).

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